Lawyer, miner and farmer from Tlalpujahua, who joined Hidalgo’s forces early, in Maravatio, and became Hidalgo’s secretary.  From the beginning of the struggle, he devoted himself to formally constitute an insurgent authority.  At the same time, he was the key promoter of El Despertador Americano, the newspaper of the Independence movement.  After the defeat of the insurgents at the Calderon Bridge, López Rayón followed the main caudillos in they journey north, but he split paths with them in Saltillo to complete the task they gave him: to continue the fight.


In his return to Michoacan, entrenched himself at Zitácuaro, where he established The Supreme Governing Junta (August 1811), of which was president, along with Jose Maria Liceaga and José Sixto Verduzco (spokesmen)  Many laws, proclamations and rules were written by this Junta.  After the fall of Zitacuáro to the royalist, the Junta survived as a migrating government until it was incorporated, 1813, into the proceedings of the Chilpancingo Congress.


Although Ignacio López Rayón contributed actively to Mexico’s Independence movement in military affairs (where he was part of key events ), without a doubt, his most significant contribution was in the realm of political affairs as he participated importantly in the Chilpancingo Congress and the Apatzingán Constitution, which set the basis for the construstruction of Mexico’s constitutional principles.





Francisco Xavier Mina 81789-1817).  Liberal Spaniar who during his exile in London met with the also exiled priest Servando Teresa de Mier, along with other supporters of the Mexican Independence movement.  For Mina, the battle against the absolutist government represented by Fernando VII could be fought in Spain as well as the search for better battle conditions, Mina moved to the New World.  He arrived in North America in 1816, to prepare is expedition to New Spain and, the following year, landed in Soto la Marina.  There he started an epic  military Campaign which led him to travel through territories in the northeast and center of the viceroyalty.


He obtained resounding victories such as those of the Hacienda of Peotillos and El Arrastradero.  Mina joined his forces with those of the insurgent leader Pedro Moreno in the battles of Sombrero and Los Remedios.  After many difficult encounters with the royalist forces in which he demonstrated his military prowess, Mina was finally captured in October 1817 and executed by firing squad soon afterwards.


Apart  from the ,military challenges of General Francisco Xavier Mina and his Mexican Auxiliary Army, his expedition to Mexico broaden the perspective on the War for Independence at a time where it had been reduced to a minimal level with only a few caudillos, such as Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Victoria keeping the fight alive.  From another point view, Mina´s expedition represented a high point in solidarity from other nations with the cause of Mexican Independence.

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